چگونگي نگارش مقاله پژوهشي و Paper علمي

مهمترین شیوه ارائه نتایج یک مطالعه و تحقیق تهیه مقاله پژوهشی است

 How to Write a Scientific Article and Paper?

Edit by: Mahdi Yarahmadi Khorasani

 

 

چكيده

تحقیق و پژوهش از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است و به جرات می توان گفت که همه پبشرفت های علمی صنعتی پژوهشی تکنولوژی و جامعه شناسی بر پایه تحقیق و پژوهش استوار است. اصلی تربن و مهمترین شیوه ارائه نتایج یک مطالعه و تحقیق تهیه مقاله پژوهشی است و محققی در صحنه تولید وانتشار علمی موفق است که بتواند نتایج پژوهش خود را در مجلات معتبر پژوهشی به چاپ برساند.

متن كامل

تحقيق و پژوهش از اهميت ويژه اي برخوردار است و به جرات مي توان گفت که همه پبشرفت هاي علمي صنعتي پژوهشي تکنولوژي و جامعه شناسي بر پايه تحقيق و پژوهش استوار است. اصلي تربن و مهمترين شيوه ارائه نتايج يک مطالعه و تحقيق تهيه مقاله پژوهشي است  و محققي در صحنه توليد وانتشار علمي موفق است که بتواند نتايج پژوهش خود را در مجلات معتبر پژوهشي به چاپ برساند.از آنجا که نوشتن صحيح و مناسب يک مقاله يک رکن اساسي براي چاپ مقالات علمي ميباشد  در قالب اين مقاله سعي شده است که به بررسي روش هاي صحيح نگارش مقالات پژوهشي بپردازيم.به طور کلي هر مقاله پژوهشي شامل اجزاي زير است:

 

عنوان

نام نويسندگان

آدرس ها

چکيده شامل مقدمه اهداف مواد وروشها

 نتايج بحث

واژه هاي کليدي

 مقدمه مواد و روشها

نتايج بحث تشکر و قدر داني

فهرست منابع

 

حال به ترتيب به توضيح و نحوه نگارش آنها مي پردازيم:

 

عنوان

 اولين بخش يک مقاله است که خوانده مي شود. بايد عنوان مقاله اشتراکاتي با موضوع اصلي تحقيق داشته باشد و به شکلي جذاب جمله بندي شده باشد. نکات مهم در انتخاب عنوان مقاله:

1. عنوان مقاله

عنوان مقاله حتي الامکان بايد دقيق و رسا باشد. از به کار بردن اصطلاحات ناآ شنا با اختصاري خودداري نمايد

2. عنوان مقاله حتي الامکان بايد جمله خاصي باشد که نکات اصلي و عمده موضوع را در بر دارد.

3. به طور معمول (نه هميشه)و در اکثر تحقيق ها اين 4 نکته در نظر گرفته مي شود که مي تواند عنوان مقاله نيز باشد: چه چيزي را مي خواهيم بررسي کنيم؟ در چه جامعه اي(جامعه هدف) در کجا و در چه زماني؟ مثلا عنوان يک مقاله مي تواند اين باشد: بررسي رابطه سطح سود مادران و تغذيه کودکان در شهر تهران سال 1386

4. عنوان بايد فاقد پيش داوري باشد.

مثلاْ اين عنوان عنوان مناسبي نيست بررسي علل بي علاقگي رانندگان نسبت به بستن کمربند ايمني.

5.اگر کلماتي در توصيف ويژگي مطالعه شما نقش کليدي دارند حتما در عنوان خود آنرا بگنجانيد. مثل مطالعه آينده نگر مطالعه دوسويه کور يا مطالعه تصادفي شده

6. هيچ گاه نبايد در عنوان مقاله نتيجه پژوهش را به صورت ثابت شده ذکر نمود.

7. چکیده

چکيده تحقيق چکيده پس از عنوان بيشتري از بخش است که در يک مقاله خوانده مي شود و در چکيده قسمت هاي مقاله شامل مقدمه اهداف مواد و روشها نتايج و بحث بصورت خلاصه ذکر مي شود .متن بسياري از مقاله ها به طور کامل در دسترس ما نيست و گاهي فرصت براي خواندن تمام مقاله نداريم و از اين رو چکيده مقاله اهميت زيادي دارد.در اکثر مجلات تعداد کلمات چکيده 150 تا 250 کلمه محدود است.

8. واژه هاي کليدي:

چند واژه کليدي که از اهميت زيادي در مطالعه برخوردارند، در اين قسمت ذکر مي شود. ضمن اين که با ذکر واژه هاي کليدي در سايتهاي علمي مي توان به دنبال مقاله نيز گشت. حداکثر واژه 6-5 کلمه مي باشد.

9. نويسندگان و آدرس ها:

اسامي نويسندگان و همکاراني که در مطالعه شرکت داشته اند بايد بطور کاملي ذکر شود. همچنين نويسنده اصلي که مسئول ارتباط با خوانندگان است بايد مشخص شود ( با گذاردن خطي در زير اسم وي ) و آدرس کامل و شماره تلفن وي در اختيار خوانندگان قرار گيرد.

10. مقدمه:

مقدمه يک مقاله پژوهشي ضمن ببان مسئله و تشريح مورد موضوع به آن مسئله پاسخ ميدهد که ارزش مطالعه حاضر براي انجام آن چه بوده است.در حقيقت با مطالعه مقدمه بک مقاله پژوهشي خواننده با مسئله مورد تحقيق آشنا شده و ضرورت انجام پژوهش را درک ميکند.متن مقدمه بايد روان باشد و حتي الامکان به صورت خلاصه و حداکثردر 2 صفحه تايپ شود.اهداف(در چکيده مقاله):در اين قسمت هدف از انجام مطالعه ذکر مي شود.

11. مواد روشها:

در اين قسمت از مقاله چگونگي و روش انجام پژوهش توضيح داده مي شود.همچنين مواد با نمونه هاي مورد آزمايش چگونگي نمونه گيري (انتخاب نمونه ها ) جامعه هدف و مراحل اجرائي پژوهش و نحوه تجزيه و تحليل داده ها ذکر مي شود. در اين قسمت در مورد تغيير بيشتر بحث شده و روش اندازه گيري و ميزان دقت و چگونگي کنترل آنها گفته مي شود.گاهي روش کنترل و چگونگي رعايت مسائل اخلاقي نيز بايد ذکر شود ( در مورد پژوهش هاي انجام شده روي نمونه حيواني يا انساني )

12. نتایج:

در اين قسمت نتايج بدست آمده از پژوهش ذکر مي شود. نتايجي کليدي مطالعه بايد با کلمات روان و دقيق و بدون بزرگ نمايي ذکر مي شود.از روش مختلفي براي ارائه نتايج استفاده مي شود که شامل استفاده از مقادير جداول و نمودارها کمک ارزنده اي به ارائه مطلب بطور ساده تر مي نمايد اما به طور کامل آنها توضيح داده شود تا موجب گنگ شدن مطلب نشود.در مواردي که از روش ها و آزمون هاي آماري براي بررسي نتايج و تحليل داده ها استفاده شده است بايد نوع آن نيز ذکر شود.

13. بحث:

در اين قسمت به تفسير نتايج ارائه شده مي پردازيم.همچنين مي توان به مقايسه نتايج به دست آمده از مطالعه حاضر با نتايج ساير مطالعه ها پرداخت و با توجه به مجموعه شواهد نتيجه گيري نمود.در صورت لزوم مي توان پيشنهادهايي براي انجام مطالعات بهتر و کامل تر در آينده ارائه داد.

14.تشکر و قدرداني :

قدرداني و تشکر از موسسه ها و افراد مورد نظر در اين بخش انجام مي شود.

15. فهرست منابع :

در پايان از نظر اخلاقي موظفيم که فهرستي از منابع مورد استفاده خود را ذکر نماييم.شيوه روش نمابر در نشريات مختلف متفاوت است و بهتر است از راهنمايي اين نشريات و شرايط نگارش مقالات کمک بگيريم.چند نکته اساسي در ارسال مقالات :به ياد داشته باشيد که قبل از ارسال چکيده مقاله خود به يک مجله ابتدا فرم نحوه نگارش مقاله را از آن مجله  دريافت نماييد و چکيده خود را در قالب آن فرم تهيه و تايپ نماييد ( به عنوان مثال تعداد کلمات ، فونت ، تعداد خطوط ، فاصله خطوط از کناره هاي صفحه و…)

اما چرا چکيده اي از مقالات پذيرفته نمي شود ؟

1. ابهام  در موضوع مقاله و وجود تعداد زياد مقالات مشابه از قبل

2.عدم ذکر زمينه اصلي تحقيق

3.تعداد کم نمونه هاي مورد مطالعه

4.عدم ذکر صحيح ارقام آماري

5.فقدان بحث و پرداختن به نتايج

6.چکيده هاي خيلي کوتاه و خيلي زياد

7.بي دقتي در تهيه متن (غلط تايپي ، اشتباهات متن)

*منبع: http://www.bpdanesh.ir/detailnews.asp?id=3354

بابک شکري-حامد هادي زاده

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to Write a Scientific Article?

a "Cookbook" for the Introduction,

Methods and Materials, Results, and Discussion Sections

Note: First familiarize yourself with the names for the kinds of scientific writing and with the names given the traditional parts of a scientific article on the page titled "Types of Natural Sciences Writing."   Write the article's sections in proper order--see "General Advice..." at the end of that page. Then consult this "cookbook" to get instructions for creating the four most difficult parts of the article so they will do what a scientific reader expects them to do. As you write, turn to the section you are working on and make sure it follows these instructions in the order they are given.

INTRODUCTION:  The Introduction answers the questions: what?; why?; and how? ("Who?" and "where?" and "when?" are identified on your title page by your name, course, and date.)

Teach the reader about your subject:

1) Define the subject, describing characteristics of the animal, plant, organ, structure, chemical, etc. you will study and explaining those characteristics' importance. As you do, mention pertinent literature that discusses previous research on your subject.

2) Describe the controversy or question which requires you to perform this experiment, referring to the literature mentioned in #1 above.

3) State how your experiment addresses this question or controversy (your purpose).

4) Finish with the major finding of your report, in one sentence if possible.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Materials and Methods section describes the essential stages of procedure necessary to reproduce this experiment.

Tell the reader how to repeat your experiment:

1) Explain the source of chemicals and/or animals

2) Explain your "experimental design," including the number and types of animals, quantities and concentrations of chemicals, make and model of unusual equipment, essential conditions (heat/cold, time, agitation or other stimuli).

3) Explain procedures used to measure effects you studied (e.g., the assay protocol, etc.).

RESULTS:  The Results section reports, without conclusions or discussion, specific effects the Materials and Methods said you were looking for (Materials and Methods #3).

Tell the reader what you found, dividing results of complicated experiments into types and reporting each type of result in a separate paragraph:

1) Open each Results paragraph with one general sentence stating the part of the procedure used to see the result described in that paragraph (should correlate with #3 in Materials and Methods).

2) State relevant results seen in this procedure, specifying both qualities (e.g., redness) and quantities (e.g., drops per minute). Use words and phrases like "greater," "lesser," "increased with time," "the majority," "less than 50%" to specify general trends in your results.

3) Many results include so many numbers that it is better to present this data in table or graph form. Summarize major trends in words (as in #2 above) but do not repeat actual numbers. Refer readers to the table, graph, or figure after your summary sentence: "Blood pressure is correlated with body weight (Figure 1) and age (Table 1)."

DISCUSSION: Your Discussion explains what the results show and interprets what they mean for the question or controversy which motivated the experiment (Introduction #2 and #3).

For each result reported in Results, explain what the result shows or means:

1) Open your Discussion by restating the question addressed by your experiment (see Introduction #2).

2) Match each paragraph in Results with a paragraph in Discussion. Open each paragraph with a 1-sentence summary of the procedure and result obtained (Results #1 & #2). Follow with a conclusion that can be drawn from the result. Use words and phrases like: "therefore" and "this result shows that" when conclusions follow directly, without interpretation, from the result; "this result suggests that" and "this result supports the conclusion that" when the results are not sufficient in themselves to confirm conclusions. If you found articles in scientific literature that support or contradict your findings, mention their findings here and explain how they affect your conclusions.

3) The final paragraph speculates on how your study may relate to a more general issue (see Introduction #1 and #2).

 

 

How To Write a Scientific Paper

By Susan Cordova for the New Mexico Junior Academy of Science


STYLE

In all sections of the paper, present tense should be used to report background that is already established. For example, "The cell membrane is the barrier which separates the inside of the cell from the outside." Use future tense for work that you will do. For example, "We will test the hypothesis that some anti-microbial agents can permeate the cell membrane during division to inhibit growth." Always use past tense to describe results of a specific experiment, especially your own. For example, "Application of the antibiotic Chloramphenicol restricted growth of E. coli.". Number the pages of the body of the paper beginning with the Introduction as page 1. For a short paper a "Table of Contents" is generally not necessary.

CAPTIONING

Captioning is a method of separating the body of a paper into sections. Headings show organization and identify the topic for a section or a block of information. Capital letters, underlining, point size, and position on the page help to differentiate rank or level.

TITLE PAGE

The person reading, grading or judging a scientific paper can be most objective if the author remains anonymous while the paper is read. Your name, date, and title of the paper should be on a cover page, and not on any other part of the paper. See the "Rules for the Paper Competition" for additional information needed on the title page if you are entering the NMJAS Paper Competition. Your title should be specific in describing the experiment you performed. For example, "Effects of a Variety of Anti-microbial Agents on Four Bacterial Cultures" is much more interesting than just "Anti-microbial Agents".

ABSTRACT

The Abstract is a summary of the study, with the primary emphasis on results and conclusions. Very briefly present the question(s) asked, the experimental design, a summary of observations, and list conclusions. Be very succinct - the abstract should be a single paragraph, no more than one page. It should stand on its own; therefore, do not refer to any other part of the report, such as a figure or table. Avoid long sections of introductory or explanatory material. As a summary of work done, it is written in past tense. Start your introduction on new page.

"This study was done to look at the effect of a variety of antimicrobial agents on several microorganisms. This response is usually determined by the agent's mode of action and the structure of the microbe. The experiment involved applying antimicrobial disks onto agar inoculated with the test microbe. Zones of inhibition were measured after 18 hours to determine each reaction as sensitive, resistant, or intermediate. Staph. Aureus, a gram positive organism with a thick cell wall, was very sensitive to all agents except Nalidixic acid. P. Aeruginosa showed resistance to all but Streptomycin which had an intermediate effect. E. coli was resistant to all but Chloramphenicol and Nalidixic acid. These results were consistent with the fact that E. coli and P. Aeruginosa are gram negative organisms which exhibit a thin cell wall of peptidoglycan with an outer membrane acting as a barrier against some antibiotics. Further experiments should investigate the sensitivity or resistance of strains from different sources, such as hospitals and schools."

INTRODUCTION

Keep the introduction brief, but do indicate the purpose of the experiments performed as well as present appropriate background. Make sure that the reader knows enough to appreciate the relevance of the work and why it is appropriate to ask the question that you will address with your study. Always state the hypothesis and/or objectives in your introduction.

"This investigation involved exposing several microorganisms to a variety of anti-microbial agents to test whether the microbe was sensitive, resistant or intermediate to the particular agents. This kind of testing is very important in the medical field because physicians need to know what antibiotics to prescribe for certain microbial infections. Anti-microbial agents, because of their mode of action, inhibit the growth of only some microorganisms, and some work better than others. The Kirby-Bauer method employed in this study involves applying paper disks impregnated with different anti-microbial agents onto an agar surface inoculated with the test organism. The zones of inhibition which appear after incubation can be measured to determine the classification of sensitivity. It is hypothesized that two of the four organisms used, P. aeruginosa and E. coli, will show resistance to most of the anti-microbial agents due to their extra LPS (lipopolysaccharide) layer, characteristic of all gram negative organisms, which hinders growth inhibition."

METHODS

You must document all methods performed in your study. Do not, under any circumstances, report methods word-for-word from any of the written sources you used. You need to summarize, in your own words, what you did. Also, do not give unneeded detail. For example, instead of "I took up 1 ml of bacterial broth from a 5 ml tube with a 2 ml plastic pipet and expelled it onto the surface of one agar plate", write "One agar plate was inoculated with 1 ml of bacterial broth". We can also see that in this latter sentence passive voice was used to report methods, a standard for most scientific publications. To give another example, one would write "Cells were grown at 37oC." instead of "We grew the cells at 37oC.".

While it is tempting to report methods in chronological order in a narrative form, it is usually more effective to present them under headings devoted to specific procedures or groups of procedures. Some examples of separate headings are "Sources of Materials," "Inoculation Procedures", "Analytical Procedures", "Measuring Zones of Inhibition," and "Statistical Methods."

Don't report information that would be irrelevant to an independent investigator. For example, not everyone uses the computer software you have in the lab. The programs you used to organize or plot data are not important. Most important, do not report any results of the experiment in the methods section. These, of course, go in the "Results" section.

RESULTS

Raw data include all observations or data that you get from your experiment. Raw data are never included in your scientific paper unless they are needed to give evidence for specific conclusions which cannot be obtained by looking at an analysis, or summation, of the data. Analyze your data, then present them in the form of figures (graphs), tables, and/or descriptions of observations. Data in this form are called converted data. Figures are preferable to tables, and tables are preferable to straight text. By presenting converted data, you make your point succinctly and clearly.

To give your results continuity, describe the relationship of each section of converted data to the overall study. For example, rather than just putting a table in the paper and going on to the discussion section, write, "Table 2 shows the means and standard deviations for each interaction of anti-microbial agent and microbe. The results of those interactions with both 0 inhibitions and large positive inhibitions were questionable and were subsequently marked with a question mark (?)." The same goes for figures.

The table or figure should then be presented, complete with title. The title should explain what the table or figure is showing. For example, "Table 2. Means (M) and Standard Deviations (SD) of Inhibition Zone Diameters (mm)"

All converted data go into the body of the report, after the methods and before the discussion. Do not stick graphs or other data onto the back of the report just because you printed or prepared them separately. Place raw data at the back of the report as an appendix, if needed. The appendix is also appropriate for any sample calculations that are needed, such as hand-worked statistical analyses or raw calculations that show how you arrived at reported values. A published research report will seldom have such an appendix, but it may be appropriate in the case of a paper competition.

Do not draw conclusions in the results section. Reserve data interpretation for the discussion.

DISCUSSION

Interpret your data in the discussion. Decide if each hypothesis is supported, rejected, or if you cannot make a decision with confidence. Do not simply dismiss a study or part of a study as "inconclusive". Make what conclusions you can, then suggest how the experiment must be modified in order to properly test the hypothesis(es).

Explain all of your observations as much as possible, focusing on mechanisms.

"Proteus mirabilis displayed an array of reactions to the antimicrobial agents. It was resistant to Bacitracin and Vancomycin, both involved in inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis. The types of penicillins involved in inhibiting transpeptidization in the cell wall, Ampicillin and Methicillin, were more effective in inhibiting growth. The differences in these results may involve the different specific stages at which the antibiotics have their effect on protein synthesis."

When you refer to information, distinguish data generated by your own studies from published information or from information obtained from other students. Refer to work done by specific individuals (including yourself) in past tense. Refer to generally accepted facts and principles in present tense.

"John Doe (1964) found that Chloramphenicol prevents the formation of peptide bonds during protein synthesis while Erythromycin inhibits translocation."

Most studies will require a critique of the experiment. Determine if you asked the right question in the first place. Decide if the experimental design adequately addressed the hypothesis, and whether or not it was properly controlled. For example:

"There were a few problems with the data. A few of the interactions between antibiotic and microbe showed a great amount of inhibition along with absolutely no inhibition. Many of the antibiotic disks were out of date (some as long as 15 years) which may have caused some of the disks to lose their potency. A loss of potency would cause a decrease in inhibition. Although it could be assumed from this fact that the positive inhibition data is the more accurate, it cannot be said with certainty."

Finally, where do you go next? The best studies open up new avenues of research. What questions remain? Did the study lead you to any new questions? Try to think up a new hypothesis and briefly suggest new experiments to further address the main question. Be creative, and don't be afraid to speculate.
        
"Future experiments might include using cultures of microbes from different sources, such as hospitals, day care centers, and schools to look for signs of lowered resistance."


LITERATURE CITED

Literature citations in the body of your paper should be in parentheses and contain only the author's last name and the date; for multiple authors include the last name of the first author, et al., and the date. If the author's name is used in the text then just the date in parentheses is sufficient. For example: (Monod, 1949) (Neidhardt et al., 1990) or Monod (1949) compared the reaction….. List all literature cited in your report in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author in a separate section. Use the proper form for citations. If the citation is to a specific page add the page number.

For scientific papers:
        Monod, J. 1949. The growth of bacterial cultures. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 3:371-394
.

For a book:
        Neidhardt, F.C, Ingraham, J.L. and. Schaechter, M. 1990. Physiology of the Bacterial Cell. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

For a newspaper article:
        McKay, D. 2000. Arsenic: how much is safe? Albuquerque Journal. July 30, 2000, p. A1.

For a web site:
        National Research Council. 1999. Arsenic in drinking water. Subcommittee on Arsenic in Drinking Water. http://www4.nationalacademies.org/news.nsf/isbn/030906337?OpenDocument
.

For a personal communication:
        Sanchez, R. 1993. City of Socorro, Water Utilities Division, Socorro, NM. Personal communication.

Acknowledgement

Some information used in this brochure was taken from the web pages of David R. Caprette.

Written with funds from a grant from Intel Foundation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

لطفاً نظرات و پیشنهادات خود را

 

با مدیریت سایت از طریق پست الکترونیکی؛

 

Email: mahdiyarahmadi@gmail.com

 

در میان گذارید.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+ نوشته شده در  87/09/06ساعت 7:27  توسط مهدي ياراحمدي خراساني  |